Extra Language Resources
eLr Design Principles
This page is to provide a summary of eLr design principles, and to define some of Speech Pathology terminology used on this site
eLr activities are designed to be used in an interactive session between the clinician/helper, the client, and the activity. The clinician is able to:
- provide feedback for the client's phonological and language output
- expand on the client's response
- use techniques to facilitate closer approximations of target responses
- provide repetition as required
- use the materials in combination with other teaching methods (eg use of writing) to reinforce concepts, particularly in literacy skills
- make judgements about the direction of further sessions based on client response
- No sound or digitised speech
The eLr activities do not include sound (eg speech) for the following reasons:
- the style and complexity of presentation will differ for each client
- the exercises can be modified to provide varying degrees of difficulty, or even used for various purposes (eg many semantic tasks can be used for fluency). The speech model and instructions need to be provided by the clinician to suit the chosen goal or presentation
- accent and ethnic differences can be accommodated
- varying degrees of repetition and rate of presentation can be provided
- Task modification
Each eLr activity can be modified in presentation. Examples of modifications include colour changes, display of picture only, picture plus word, or word only. This allows:
- use of picture only, eg in phonemic awareness
- use of text with the picture to reinforce reading and spelling skills, or introduce text knowledge
- use of grid mode (eg in "Picture Flyout" model). The task can then include a visual memory component to add interest and challenge
- Vocabulary selection
The vocabulary used has been selected with the needs of the clients in mind.
- in phonology, the vocabulary is appropriate to the approximate age of the client group
- in the simpler reading and spelling tasks, the vocabulary is concrete in nature. As the level increases, the vocabulary encourages further language expansion
- in the semantic section (currently under development), vocabulary selection matches the target client group. For example, in tasks directed at adult aphasia, consideration has been given to frequency of use, imageability, and whether the selection involves "related/unrelated", "general/specific" items
- Subtle reinforcement
Reinforcement for correct responses in all tasks is subtle in nature. Where a correct responses can be recorded by the computer, the correct item is marked in red. In many tasks the computer is unable to judge correctness, and it is the clinician who provides appropriate feedback.
- Non-computer based scoring
eLr activities are not cumulatively scored by the computer and they are not designed to be worked through in a hierarchical manner. We consider that for many functions, a computer is unable to score or judge correctness (eg phonological output, word generation and oral narrative) or provide rich language expansion. Instead, eLr is designed to be used following assessment of speech and language skills - the clinician then makes decisions regarding skill ar
eas needing attention, and selects appropriate eLr tasks. However, the clinician/helper can be assisted in tracking a clients progress by recording eLr task numbers, and client performance on the provided Report Forms.
Speech Pathology Terminology
Click on a link below to see the definition of the term.
The study of the system of sounds used in a language. Developmental phonology describes the patterns that children use when language is developing.
A sound used in spoken language. For example, "key" has two sounds or phonemes, and "kite" has three phonemes. The two /k/ sounds would be pronounced slightly differently because they are influenced by the different vowels, but they are considered to be one phoneme.
Phonemic awareness (or phonological awareness)
This skill involves the ability to manipulate and understand sounds, and the relationship between sounds and words. For example, children learn to recognise that two words sound alike (or rhyme), and can identify the first or last sound in a word. They are able to manipulate sounds in words to make up new words (eg "might" without the /t/ sound is "my"), and recognise that sentences are made up of separate words. These skills can be taught and improved, and increase the child's success in learning to read
A speech sound where there is a total or partial obstruction to the flow of air. For example, in /p/ the lips totally obstruct the air, and the sound is made when the lips make a little plosive sound. In /th/ the tongue partially obstructs the flow of air, and the air continuously passes out of the mouth. There are different types of consonants.
- Voiced consonants mean the voice box is used (eg /b/, /m/, /l/).
- Voiceless consonants are made without voice (eg /p/, /s/).
- Plosive consonants involve a complete stopping of the sound, and a little explosion as the sound is made (eg /p/, /d/).
- Continuant consonants have a continuous flow of air (eg /m/, /f/).
- Nasal consonants are those sounds where the sound comes out of the nose (eg /m/, /n/, /ng/).
- Fricative consonants is a plosive consonant where the little explosion is done less quickly than in the plosive. In fricative sounds such as /f/ /v/ /th/ /s/ etc, the air does not flow freely out of the mouth, but is not completely stopped (as in /p/).
- Lateral consonants are those where the air escapes out the side of the tongue.
These are voiced sounds where the air passes through the mouth in a continuous stream. There is no obstruction and no narrowing of the mouth preventing free flow of sound.
These are sounds which combine two vowels sounds in one syllable. It is a gliding sound where the tongue starts in the position of one vowel and glides to the second sound. For example, the "a" sound in "day" is a gliding sound. It starts as the "a" in "cat" and glides to "i" as in "hid", "a....i...."
These are a combination of two letters that represent one sound. There are consonant digraphs (eg th, sh) and vowel digraphs (eg ea, oo).
Words that sound the same but different meanings. For example, "pear - pair".
Words that are spelt the same but have different meanings. For example, "cricket" the insect, and "cricket" the game.
If you would like further information about these topics, your local Speech and Language Pathologist will be able to assist.
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