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eLr Design Principles

This page is to provide a summary of eLr design principles, and to define some of Speech Pathology terminology used on this site

KEY PRINCIPLES

  1. Interactivity
    eLr activities are designed to be used in an interactive session between the clinician/helper, the client, and the activity. The clinician is able to:
  2. No sound or digitised speech
    The eLr activities do not include sound (eg speech) for the following reasons:
  3. Task modification
    Each eLr activity can be modified in presentation. Examples of modifications include colour changes, display of picture only, picture plus word, or word only. This allows:
  4. Vocabulary selection
    The vocabulary used has been selected with the needs of the clients in mind.
  5. Subtle reinforcement
    Reinforcement for correct responses in all tasks is subtle in nature. Where a correct responses can be recorded by the computer, the correct item is marked in red. In many tasks the computer is unable to judge correctness, and it is the clinician who provides appropriate feedback.
  6. Non-computer based scoring
    eLr activities are not cumulatively scored by the computer and they are not designed to be worked through in a hierarchical manner. We consider that for many functions, a computer is unable to score or judge correctness (eg phonological output, word generation and oral narrative) or provide rich language expansion. Instead, eLr is designed to be used following assessment of speech and language skills - the clinician then makes decisions regarding skill ar eas needing attention, and selects appropriate eLr tasks. However, the clinician/helper can be assisted in tracking a clients progress by recording eLr task numbers, and client performance on the provided Report Forms.

 

Speech Pathology Terminology

Terms


Click on a link below to see the definition of the term.

Definitions


Phonology
The study of the system of sounds used in a language. Developmental phonology describes the patterns that children use when language is developing.

Phoneme
A sound used in spoken language. For example, "key" has two sounds or phonemes, and "kite" has three phonemes. The two /k/ sounds would be pronounced slightly differently because they are influenced by the different vowels, but they are considered to be one phoneme.

Phonemic awareness (or phonological awareness)
This skill involves the ability to manipulate and understand sounds, and the relationship between sounds and words. For example, children learn to recognise that two words sound alike (or rhyme), and can identify the first or last sound in a word. They are able to manipulate sounds in words to make up new words (eg "might" without the /t/ sound is "my"), and recognise that sentences are made up of separate words. These skills can be taught and improved, and increase the child's success in learning to read and spell.

Consonant
A speech sound where there is a total or partial obstruction to the flow of air. For example, in /p/ the lips totally obstruct the air, and the sound is made when the lips make a little plosive sound. In /th/ the tongue partially obstructs the flow of air, and the air continuously passes out of the mouth. There are different types of consonants.

Vowels
These are voiced sounds where the air passes through the mouth in a continuous stream. There is no obstruction and no narrowing of the mouth preventing free flow of sound.

Diphthongs
These are sounds which combine two vowels sounds in one syllable. It is a gliding sound where the tongue starts in the position of one vowel and glides to the second sound. For example, the "a" sound in "day" is a gliding sound. It starts as the "a" in "cat" and glides to "i" as in "hid", "a....i...."

Digraphs
These are a combination of two letters that represent one sound. There are consonant digraphs (eg th, sh) and vowel digraphs (eg ea, oo).

Homophones
Words that sound the same but different meanings. For example, "pear - pair".

Homographs
Words that are spelt the same but have different meanings. For example, "cricket" the insect, and "cricket" the game.

If you would like further information about these topics, your local Speech and Language Pathologist will be able to assist.


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